V/ LIÊN TỪ CHỈ THỜI GIAN
1. WHEN/WHILE/AS/AFTER + clause
– WHEN/WHILE/AS I was driving along the road, I saw a terrible accident.
– He went out AFTER he’d finished work.
2. WHENEVER/EVERY TIME + clause
– WHENEVER/EVERY TIME I see him, he’s driving a different car.
3. FIRST/THEN/LATER etc. dùng để giới thiệu những mốc thời gian.
– FIRST he closed all the windows, THEN he locked the doors. LATER he came back to check that everything was all right.
4. DURING/ALL THROUGH/THROUGHOUT + noun phrase.
– DURING/ALL THROUGH the summer we get a lot of visitors.
– It rained heavily THROUGHOUT the night.
VI/ LIÊN TỪ CHỈ ĐIỀU KIỆN (condition)
1. EVEN IF/AS LONG AS/UNLESS + clause
– EVEN IF you are born rich, life is still difficult.
– You can borrow the car AS LONG AS you’re careful with it.
– You can’t come with me UNLESS you promise to keep quiet.
2. WHETHER… OR NOT được dùng làm câu hỏi gián tiếp.
Sau giới từ và/hoặc trước động từ TO V chúng ta sử dụng WHETHER chứ không dùng IF.
– I don’t know WHETHER you have met him OR NOT.
– It depends ON WHETHER the government takes any action.
– The organizers will decide WHETHER TO IMPOSE fines.
3. IN CASE + clause
IN CASE OF + noun (dùng trong văn viết)
– Take this umbrella IN CASE it rains.
– IN CASE OF emergency, break the glass.
VII/ LIÊN TỪ DÙNG ĐỂ THÊM THÔNG TIN HOẶC NHẤN MẠNH
1. BESIDES/IN ADDITION (TO THAT)/FURTHERMORE + clause (đứng sau mệnh đề chính). Trong văn viết nên dùng FURTHERMORE.
MOREOVER được dùng ở đầu hoặc giữa câu nhằm đưa thêm thông tin.
– I don’t really want to go out tonight. BESIDES, there’s a good film on TV.
– We are still waiting for the goods we ordered three months ago. FURTHERMORE, we have been overcharged for our last order.
– This theory about the origins of the universe is new. It is, MOREOVER, extremely interesting.
2. NOT ONLY… BUT ALSO/AS WELL
Notice: BUT ALSO + noun/noun phrase; BUT + S + V + ALSO
NOT ONLY khi đứng đầu câu sẽ mang ý nghĩa nhấn mạnh, sử dụng cấu trúc này cần đảo ngữ cho vế NOT ONLY và vế còn lại sẽ dùng BUT + S + V + ALSO.
– The painting is NOT ONLY valuable BUT ALSO a work of art.
– She NOT ONLY writes novels BUT (she) lectures AS WELL.
– The house was NOT ONLY large BUT (was/it was) ALSO modern.
– NOT ONLY is the restaurant superb BUT it is ALSO expensive.
3. AS WELL AS + noun/phrase/V_ing
– They robbed a bank AS WELL AS a post office.
– AS WELL AS being sent to prison, they were fined $2000.
4. TOO/AS WELL/NOT EITHER thường dùng trong văn nói, và đặt ở cuối mệnh đề phụ.
– They like Indian food. I like Indian food TOO/AS WELL.
– They aren’t very generous people. They have NOT got any friends EITHER.