III/ LIÊN TỪ CHỈ MỤC ĐÍCH (purpose)
1. (NOT) TO/IN ODER (NOT) TO/SO AS (NOT) TO + verb nguyên mẫu
Notice: trong văn viết (formal) không nên dùng (NOT) TO
– We came to the countryside TO find some peace and quiet.
– Handle the flowers carefully IN ORDER NOT TO damage them.
2. SO THAT/IN ORDER THAT + clause (thường dùng can, could, might, would)
– He chose this university SO THAT/IN ORDER THAT he could study Physics.
IV/ LIÊN TỪ CHỈ SỰ ĐỐI LẬP (contrast)
1. ALTHOUGH/EVEN IF/EVEN THOUGH + clause (even though chỉ dùng trong văn nói)
– ALTHOUGH/EVEN IF/EVEN THOUGH the car is old, it is still reliable.
2. DESPITE/IN SPITE OF + noun/noun phrase/V_ing
DESPITE THE FACT THAT/IN SPITE OF THE FACT THAT + clause
– DESPITE/IN SPITE OF the rain, I went for a walk.
– We enjoyed our walking holiday DESPITE THE FACT THAT/IN SPITE OF THE FACT THAT it was tiring.
3. HOWEVER + clause
THOUGH thường dùng trong văn nói, và đứng ở cuối câu.
– Buying a house is expensive. It is, HOWEVER, a good investment.
– It’s a big decision to make, THOUGH.
4. BUT/WHILE/WHEREAS thường dùng để nối 2 mệnh đề trong câu.
– John is very rich BUT/WHILE/WHEREAS his friends are extremely poor.
5. ON THE ONE HAND/ON THE OTHER HAND dùng cho một cặp câu diễn tả 2 ý trái ngược nhau.
– ON THE ONE HAND these computers are expensive. ON THE OTHER HAND they are exactly what we want.